Stages of Reading Development (Poster)

Stages of Reading Development

Stages of Reading by age and grade level:

Reading Milestones practiced and achieved by students:

Teacher’s role for supporting reading development within each stage:

Stage 0: Prereading

Age: 6 months – 6 years

Grade:

Preschool – Kindergarten

  • Develops and builds control of oral language skills

 

  • Print and sight-word recognition

 

  • Detect sound patterns in words (rhyme and alliteration)

 

  • Notice that words can be fragmented into parts

 

  • Can join partial words and sounds together (synthesized/blended) to form whole words

 

  • Pretends to read and demonstrates concepts of print

 

  • Retells stories when viewing pages of a book previously read to them
  • Create a print-rich classroom environment; including various storybooks in all centers of the classroom, a writing center, labeling objects, word-walls, etc.

 

  • Scaffold and expand child’s verbalization through parallel talk by detailing actions and observations of activities/interactions between peers and individual play

 

  • Be welcoming and encourage children to ask questions

 

  • Include songs and rhyming activities in group lesson plans regularly

 

Stages of Reading by age and grade level:

Reading Milestones practiced and achieved by students:

Teacher’s role for supporting reading development within each stage:

Stage 1: Initial Reading (Decoding)

Age: 6 – 7

Grade: 1st – 2nd

 

  • Child can read simple text containing high frequency words and phonically regular words

 

  • Grows awareness of sound and symbol relationships (such as question marks and exclamation points accentuating printed dialogue)

 

  • Become capable of sound-spelling and use decoding to figure out new words
 

  • Set time to permit students to comfortably read independently during the school day

 

  • Provide an extensive classroom library; enable easy access to books which accommodates personal interest of students and familiar titles or topics

 

  • Encourage children to write about known words and use invented spelling to advance writing skills

 

Stages of Reading by age and grade level:

Reading Milestones practiced and achieved by students:

Teacher’s role for supporting reading development within each stage:

Stage 2:

Confirmation

&

Fluency

Age: 7 – 8

Grade: 2nd and 3rd

 

  • Can read familiar stories with increasing fluency; accomplished by consolidating the basic decoding elements, sight vocabulary, and context meaning
 

  • Instruction that includes repeated and monitored oral reading, such as guided read-a-louds

 

  • Model fluency by reading to students daily

 

  • Provide short texts which enable students to focus on basic decoding skills

 

  • Pause while reading to define unfamiliar words and engage conversations about stories read

 

Stages of Reading by age and grade level:

Reading Milestones practiced and achieved by students:

Teacher’s role for supporting reading development within each stage:

Stage 3:

Reading for Learning

Ages: 9 – 13

Grade: 4th – Middle School

  • Expand vocabularies

 

  • Build background and world knowledge

 

  • Develop strategic and organization habits

 

  • Reading best developed with materials and purposes that are clear, within one viewpoint, and limited in technical complexities
  • Motivate students to enhance their understanding of literacy skills

 

  • Incorporate cooperative learning

 

  • Teach specific comprehension strategies; including comprehension monitoring, using graphic and semantic organizers, answering questions, recognizing textual structures, summarizing, and identifying main ideas and important details.

 

  • Provide study materials such as dictionaries, thesauruses, reference guides, etc.

Stages of Reading by age and grade level:

Reading Milestones practiced and achieved by students:

Teacher’s role for supporting reading development within each stage:

Stage 4:

Multiple Viewpoints

Age: 14 – 18

Grade: High School

  • Understand multiple points of view

 

  • Analyze texts critically

 

  • Develop more sophisticated disciplinary knowledge and perspectives

 

  • Ability to examine multiple facts and concepts to extend or reevaluate previous knowledge
  • Select complex literature assignments which include multiple perspectives

 

  • Require students to annotate text, read for information, and include references in writing assignments

 

  • Provide access to and instruction with multimodal as well as traditional print sources

 

  • Discuss and explore how disciplinary contexts apply outside of school

 

  • Encourage learners to refine interest and pursue areas of expertise

Stages of Reading by age and grade level:

Reading Milestones practiced and achieved by students:

Teacher’s role for supporting reading development within each stage:

Stage 5:

Construction

&

Reconstruction

Age: 18 and above

Grade: College

  • Reading is used for one’s own needs and purposes (professional and personal)

 

  • Construct understanding based on analysis and synthesis

 

  • Able to selectively read context with purpose
 

Arrange tasks and activities throughout prior reading stages to be:

  • developmentally appropriate and support advancing to next reading levels

 

  • assist readers to achieve an efficient foundation of literacy skills, provide learning accommodations as needed, and challenge improvement

 

  • provoke and inspire genuine interest to purse reading beyond necessity for academic success

 

Works Cited:

Chall on Stages of Reading Development  |  Chapter 15: Literacies and Learner Differences  |  Literacies  |  New Learning. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://newlearningonline.com/literacies/chapter-15/chall-on-stages-of-reading-development
Stages of Literacy Development. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.theliteracybug.com/stages-of-literacy/

 

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Getting Loud: Concepts of Print

Originally developed by literacy researcher Marie Clay, the concepts of print assessment is a book-reading task which involves teachers evaluating a child’s ability to identify features of text and book handling (Wohlwend, 2017). This assessment is a useful strategy which teachers can use to understand what individual students know specifically about book concepts, directionality, letter and word recognition, as well as punctuation. Awareness of student developmental progress, such as literacy skills, is vital to a teacher’s capability to provide stimulating learning opportunities. Areas of accomplishment and improvement needs can easily be distinguished for early readers through a concepts of print assessment. This information enables teachers to thoroughly support their student comprehension of print concepts by structuring lesson plans that are personalized to the developmental levels of students and challenges growth. Teachers can further use the assessment information for communicating progress with families and promote exposure, as well as engagement, to concepts of print at home. Essentially, assessing concepts of print is beneficial because insight of students’ individual abilities permits teachers to successfully address areas in need of improvement and assist students to develop crucial early literacy skills.

The increasing use and ease of access which early readers have to digital media raises the question if mobile devices – such as iPads – are efficient tools to support concepts of print. The interactive nature of touchscreen tablets involves a navigation system unlike traditional book handling yet appears to be capable of providing a form of reading practice.  In the fascinating video “A Magazine is an iPad That Does Not Work” (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aXV-yaFmQNk), a young toddler is shown navigating through an iPad with ease before attempting the same navigation notions with the text and pictures of a paper magazine. The child’s clicking and scrolling on the pages of the magazine does not result with her expected outcome based on prior experience of digital reading, although she clearly demonstrates concept of print (Wohlwend, 2017). By her movements to tap on recognized images of pictures and text, the child displayed an understanding to activate the touchscreens icons which symbolize literate actions.

Even though mobile devices are suggested to be a new and useful literacy disposition, I am skeptical how well touchscreen tablets can promote long-lasting literacy skills compared to traditional book reading. Past educational research strongly confirms that children learn through physical senses during repetitive motor play experiences (Wohlwend, 217). Regarding reading with toddlers, sensory experiences greatly differ between traditional board-books and iPads. For example, an iPad may be proficient for audio reading possibilities but is unable to permit toddlers to explore texture as a board-book can. I feel that reliance on touchscreen tablets over traditional books could hinder literacy learning opportunities, reduce interest in books, and lower reading comprehension. I am also concerned that overuse of touchscreen tablets may decrease the quality and time children spend reading with adults as well as peers, particularly in the preschool classroom setting. According to National Association for the Education of Young Children, appropriate use of tablets in the preschool classroom monitors time used, encourages social interaction, and should intentionally extend learning (NAEYC, 2012). Altogether, I believe mobile devices can be useful literacy tools for young readers to explore concepts of print when usage is apt in the classroom setting.

 

Works Cited:

NAEYC. (2012). Touch and Grow: Learning and Exploring Using Tablets. Retrieved from https://www.naeyc.org/resources/pubs/tyc/oct2012/learning-exploring-tablets

Wohlwend, K. E. (2017). Toddlers and touchscreens: Learning “Concepts Beyond Print” with tablet technologies. In R. J. Meyer & K. F. Whitmore (Eds.), Reclaiming Early Literacy. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Video Response: Intellectual Risk

In the following video link (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ob8Ra-dRWv0&feature=youtu.be), the teacher encourages intellectual risk through prompting children to explain their reasoning and extends their answers through reflection. This scaffolding method is beneficial to assist children with increasing their vocabulary and ability to articulate responses. In the beginning of the video, a boy had contributed to his peer’s measurement investigation by asking if another object fits the size of his hand. The teacher was open to rephrasing the question and continued to occasionally prompt peers at the table to share their thoughts. I feel this supported the children to take intellectual risk, but the activity could have been structured to increase inquiry further.

An essential factor that I noticed this activity had been missing was consistent participation of all the students seated at the table. The activity was mainly directed towards one child at a time to respond to the teacher’s questions, with little interaction occurring with peers waiting at the table. However, the CSDE standards express that a learning environment that proficiently encourages intellectual risk involves student comfort to share ideas and need for teacher effort to resolve lack of student engagement in learning activities (CSDU, 2014).

The teacher can further reinforce intellectual risk in this activity by increasing peer involvement. This could be accomplished by having the children discuss their problem-solving process directly to a peer, while the teacher provides questions and guidance to lengthen peer conversations. Having the children work in pairs to estimate the size of one another’s hands may be an improved approach to this activity. Working in pairs would promise children to converse solving and explaining their task activity together. Overall, initiating the activity to include teamwork among the students would strengthen intellectual risk of this activity because participation would be raised, and children will be more likely to share their own thoughts.

Works Cited:

Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ob8Ra-dRWv0&feature=youtu.be

CSDU Evidence Guide: https://portal.ct.gov/-/media/SDE/SEED/Evidence_Guides/preK-2.pdf?la=en (Page 7)

Getting Loud: Oral Language Development

How we as teachers communicate and interact with children has a substantial impact on oral language development in the classroom. The article ‘Teacher-Child Conversation in the Preschool Classroom’ by Susan L. Massey highlights the importance of cognitively challenging conversations in oral development. The challenge to initiate stimulating conversations in a large-group classroom setting is addressed. It expresses that in large-group classroom activities and teacher-student discussions, children lack opportunities to share their ideas or elaborate on teachers’ statements/questions. The article suggests that reading, play, and mealtimes are opportune moments to extend the amount of time, as well as quality, of conversations between teachers and children.

A strategy I found most useful for engaging children in oral development using storybooks is dialogic reading.  The goal of dialogic reading is to involve children as active participants in book reading interactions by prompting children to talk about the stories, evaluate the child’s response, expand the response by rephrasing and adding information, and then repeat the sequence to check for understanding (Massey, 2004). This strategy enables children to become the storytellers, and guides children to combine language use and comprehension skills (Massey, 2004).

While teachers model language use and initiate conversations throughout the school day, children cannot efficiently be offered one-on-one attention in large-groups or with teachers rotating around a classroom during free-choice play activities. To overcome this issue, the article states that teachers are more likely to engage in cognitively challenging conversations with children when they are stationed in one location rather than circulating around the classroom during playtime (Massey, 2004). This approach supports teachers to focus on conversing with children individually and facilitate peer discussions as well as pretend play.

Additionally, the article recommends for preschool centers to practice family-style mealtime to increase thought-provoking conversations. While often overlooked, I strongly agree that family style meals are a great strategy to increase quality teacher-student interactions. This dining method involves supervising adults seated at meal tables with the children, encourages children to serve food to themselves, pass serving trays to their peers, and is welcoming to conversations. According to the article, children spend more time talking during mealtimes when an adult is seated at their table rather than children to be seated without an adult (Massey, 2004). This supports the idea that teachers are capable of not only introducing conversation topics but can contribute to student-peer conversations as well.

Works Cited:

Massey, S. (2004). Teacher-Child Conversations in the Preschool Classroom. Early Childhood Education Journal, Vol. 31, 227-231.

 

Supporting Emergent Literacy

For my future preschool classroom, I plan to create a literacy-rich environment which promotes emergent literacy skills. Through manipulatives and learning materials provided, each area of the classroom will be thoughtfully designed to encourage children to participate in spoken and written language daily. Labeling items and location around the classroom will aid children to form associations with the sight-words they represent; increasing print recognition. Along with a reading center area where children can spend time reading with peers or individually during free-choices, I would like to have relating books and reading materials available in every subject area of the classroom. For example, dramatic play can be provided menus to use as props or books about restaurants, and the science center could have books available on themed topics (such as nature or magnets) for future inquiry. Similarly, I plan to have writing materials available in all subject centers beyond a designated writing center. Areas like a math center can hold opportunities to engage in writing number-words and making counting symbols for problem-solving (examples: tally, dots, drawings, etc). Along with including visible and interactive literacy materials around the classroom, I intend to be mindful of the developmental needs of all my students and shall make any necessary accommodations to enable equal learning opportunities. By establishing a literacy-rich environment. Collectively, immersion in a literacy-rich classroom environment will promote enjoyment of language skills, as well as offer greater promise for children to become proficient readers and writers.

Regarding how to encourage emergent literacy skills at home, communication between teachers and families is key to promising quality connections. Teachers can discuss literacy goals for each student with parents and integrate the individual interests and needs of each child into the classroom setting. This may include providing materials – such as labels and multilingual books – of a child’s native language to their classroom environment for English Language Learners (Reading Rockets, 2007). In EDU 305, we further discussed several ways teachers can lead families to supporting emergent literacy at home. We agreed that daily newsletters are a helpful strategy for teachers to keep parents informed on current topics that their children are learning in school. Newsletters can additionally be used to share songs/rhymes/activities/games/flashcards introduced at school to be practiced at home. Another way we thought teachers can assist families to support emergent literacy outside of school is to have a classroom library available, so parents and children may borrow books to bring home and increase reading time together. Overall, it is important for teachers to be present to communicating with families and willing to suggest, create, and lend materials in order to promote emergent literacy at home.

Works Cited:

The Access Center (2007). Literacy-Rich Environments. Retrieved from Reading Rockets: https://via.hypothes.is/http://www.readingrockets.org/article/literacy-rich-environments

 

Participate – Emergent Literacy

Example of a Preschool Schedule (7am-12pm)

Bianca Zeko, Jenna Falconieri, Rachael Garcia

 

Routine: Description:
7:00am-7:45am

Come In/ Breakfast Time –

Asking the students what they are eating and what they like about what they are eating or what they don’t like about what they are eating
7:45am-7:55am  

Transition –

The teacher will hold up flashcards with letter on it.

If the student’s name starts with that letter they can go to the carpet

8:00am- 8:30am

Song/ or Song Choices –

Greeting songs with rhyming/repetition such as “Hello, How Are You?”

(Introduce a new song, or allow children to choose song(s) already known.)
ABC’s

  • Students will then sing the ABC’s with their teacher as a class. The teacher will have a letter of the day and every student will have to think about something in a specific category that begins with that letter. The teacher will choose one student who will pick the category.

Ex: category is animals and the letter of the day is A- the students will have to think of different animals that start with A, anteater, aardvark, ant, etc.

8:30am- 8:45am

Calendar –

  • Sound out syllables of month/day of week
  • Find day of the week (“Days of the Week” song)
  • Count together to find current date
8:45 am- 9:00 am

Weather Chart –

Discuss daily weather/temperature and select according sight-word cards with pictures.
9:00am-9:15am

Weekly Poem-

Students will hear the teacher read the weekly poem. Then, the students will read the poem with the teacher. Every day the teacher will point out something out about the poem that the students should notice whether it’s a pattern, repetition, capitalization, punctuation, etc. Obviously the weekly poem changes every week.
9:20am- 10:15am

Book Activity –

Read:
Harold and the Purple Crayon

by Crockett Johnson
Think about a question you  have about the book or a comment you have about the book, we will go around in a circle
Activity:
Give each child in the morning circle paper and a purple crayon. Have the children draw a picture of a place that they have been to or would like to visit/explore. Then invite the children to share their pictures and stories.
The students will then find their reading partner and will take turns reading their books with their reading partner.

 

10:15am-10:45am

Snack Time

Students will eat any snack they desire and talk amongst their peers at their table.
10:45am-10:55am

Transition

The teacher will hold up flashcards with a letter on it.

If the student’s name starts with that letter they can go to the carpet

11:00am-11:45am

Centers

  1. Students will practice writing their first and last initial on trace paper, and then will practice writing their full time with trace paper
  2. Students will explore shapes and will explore ways they can use these shapes to build

Students will get a chance to do both of these

 

11:50 am-12:00 pm Pack up and Dismissal