EDU 305 Final Exam: Dialogic Reading

This is a Dialogic Reading script example of the storybook Color Dance by Ann Jones:

Dialogic Reading – Rachael Garcia

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Silent ‘E’ Lesson Plan

by Rachael Garcia and Viosa Mullai

Introduction:

Instructors Rachael Garcia and Viosa Mullai
Date of Lesson 12/3/18 Name of school Southern Connecticut State University
Grade level K-3rd Subject area(s) Phonics
Topic of lesson Silent E’s
CT/district standards Common Core Standards:

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RF.1.2.B: Orally produce single-syllable words by blending sounds (phonemes), including consonant blends.
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RF.1.3.C: Know final -e and common vowel team conventions for representing long vowel sounds.
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RF.2.3.A: Distinguish long and short vowels when reading regularly spelled one-syllable words.

Instructional Group Whole classroom lesson and individual center activity
References https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mnanlcyRuuI

www.teacheristatales.blogspot.com

https://www.teacherspayteachers.com/Product/Silent-E-Word-Activity-143076

https://www.teacherspayteachers.com/Product/CVC-to-CVCe-Puzzles-2864798#description

Materials:

●     Projector

●     Word Cards

●     ‘E’ magnifying glasses

●     Silent E ‘scavenger hunt’ worksheet

●     CVC to CVCe puzzles

Objectives:

The main objective of the lesson plan is to assist children to understand how and why the letter ‘E’ at the end words makes a vowel sound long, while the ‘E’ remains silent. Children will practice identifying the difference of short and vowel sounds between CVC to CVCe words.

Procedure:

Initiation –

We will begin the lesson by displaying an entertaining and memorable song video. The song features familiar vocabulary words that are altered to create new meanings with the addition of a Silent letter ‘E’ at the ending. It is presented in a rhyming manner; repetition to aid recalling the Silent ‘E’ rule and function.

Following the video, we will ask the children if they noticed the difference between each set of words, what was added to make the change, and how the change affects the sounds in the letters as well as meaning.

We will then elaborate and define the Silent ‘E’ rule before proceeding to supporting lesson activities.

 

Lesson Development –

After introducing the Silent ‘E’ rule, we will demonstrate the lesson through the following activities. During both activities, teachers will prompt students to sound out the CVC words before adding a letter ‘E’ to the end. Then students are to read the resulting CVCe word. This will assist children to recognize that the vowel shown within a Silent ‘E’ word forms a long sound while the ‘e’ remains silent.

Silent ‘E’ Scavenger Hunt:

1)    Printed CVC word cards will be displayed around the classroom or playground setting.

2)    Using the ‘E’ magnifying glasses, children are to identify the sound change made from a short vowel to a long vowel with the addition of a silent ‘E’ at the end of the CVC words.

3)    Worksheets provided are for children to record their findings, with the template “______ with a silent ‘E’ becomes_____” for each numbered word card.

4)    Together as a class, the CVC to CVCe words will then be reviewed and listed on a board; creating a ‘Silent E’ word bank resource. (Example question: “What do we get when we add ‘E’ to the word ‘made?”)

CVC to CVCe Word Puzzles:

●     Ideal for a learning center station for small groups or individuals, the CVC to CVCe puzzles will be provided to reinforce the Silent ‘E’ phonics rule.

1)    The objective of the puzzles is to match the printed word with the corresponding picture,

2)    then pair the printed word to a Silent ‘E’ puzzle piece which creates a new word from the print

3)    Children will be encouraged to read the words aloud and identify the vowel sound change. (Example question: “What makes ‘plane’ sound different from ‘plan’?)

 

Closure –

When the activity lessons are completed, we will review the Silent ‘E’ rule with the students through questions such as:

·         “What happens when we add an ‘E’ to the word ____?”

·         “What does the vowel sound like in the word ‘mad’?”

·         “Does the vowel make a short sound or a long sound in the word ____? Why?”

Overall this phonics lesson: involves children recalling their previous phonological awareness, gaining understanding of phonics, and prepares children for upcoming reading comprehension and writing fluency.

 

Assessment:

Assessments will be determined by how efficiently children are able to recognize and explain:

·         Difference in sound of vowel between CVC to CVCe words

·         Understanding that the letter ‘E’ remains silent

·         Ability to read the presented words

·         Understanding in word definition change with the addition of a Silent ‘E’ letter

 Modifications/Differentiation:

Student 1 ‘Timothy’ Academic Language & Word Recognition
·         The vowels in the scavenger hunt word cards are displayed in purple to standout from the consonant letters. This will assist the student to identify which letter in the words are vowels, and which letter changes in sound while the others remain the same.

·         Teachers will further provide assistance to segment the phonemes of the words and guide the child to blend the sounds together to form the completed words.

 

Student 2 ‘Clara’ ESL
·         When explaining how the Silent ‘E’ rule applies to English, we will also discuss how silent letters can alter vowel sounds and word meanings in other languages (such as Spanish). This will aid students with understanding the functions of Silent ‘E’ words by relating to familiar phonics rules in their native language.

·         English words presented to the student will be from recognizable vocabulary which the student has previously practiced in previous activities or storybooks.

 

Student 3 ‘Seth’ Enhanced Instruction
·         Advanced vocabulary words can be provided in both the scavenger hunt and the CVC to CVCe puzzle activities to appropriately establish a challenging lesson for the student.

·         Further concepts of Silent ‘E’ can be introduced to the student as well, such as how a Silent ‘E’ doesn’t only appear at the end of words as focused in this lesson plan. The following is a chart of the various functions of Silent ‘E’ which can be discussed and taught to the student in further lesson plan activities:

(Source: https://blog.allaboutlearningpress.com/silent-e/#more-10871)

 

Reflections of Completed Lesson Plan:

1)    Having the students take turns at the board reading CVC to CVCe words appeared to be an effective way to demonstrate the Silent ‘E’ rule. Students recognized and correctly read the difference in short and long vowel sounds.

2)    Originally, the scavenger hunt at the board was only going to be demonstrated by a teacher due to time limit of the presentation. The addition of having a few students demonstrate the activity benefited participation and understanding of Silent ‘E’ rule.

3)    It was suggested that the video may not be engaging for students. If we were to preform this lesson plan again, we could improve it by briefly explaining the Silent ‘E’ rule and ask children to take not of the differences they will see between the CVC to CVCe words before the video is shown.

4)    Students accordingly met the objective of the lesson plan. Through reading the CVC to CVCe scavenger hunt words and assembling the puzzles, students displayed understanding how a Silent ‘E’ affects vowel sounds and changes word meanings.

5)    We assessed the students by monitoring their proficiency to read the CVC to CVCe words during the activities and assembly of the puzzle. Their performance showed us how well they were able to understand the change in vowel sound and word meaning with the addition of a Silent ‘E’.

6)    Appropriate next steps to further student learning would be to implement additional phoneme lessons, such as vowel combinations and ‘r’ controlled vowels. Doing so will aid students to gain proficiency phonological and phonemic awareness to enable reading comprehension as well as writing abilities.

Supporting Vocabulary Instruction in the Classroom

Presenting new words through interactive reading is an effective approach to support children’s emerging oral vocabulary. As a teacher I can use this strategy to scaffold children’s comprehension, model strategies for making inferences and explanations, as well as instruct word concepts to aid with increasing their vocabulary knowledge. Research has demonstrated that the most effective read-alouds are those where children are actively involved in asking and answering questions and making predictions, rather than passively listening.

The article ‘Beyond the Pages of a Book: Interactive Book Reading and Language Development in Preschool Classrooms’ (https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/d460/c915766a2ae833ba410e5d953dcebe5bd7df.pdf) validates the efficiency of interactive reading compared to children merely listening to storytelling without further engagement. In the study, children whose teachers provided multiple opportunities to interact with vocabulary learned a greater amount of words unlike the children who had only been exposed to books.

With awareness of interactive reading to be an ideal strategy to aid students with increasing their vocabulary, I plan to provide such instruction in my own classroom. Introducing words in such a way will create a meaningful context for children to best make associations and grasp literature materials. To further captivate students in building vocabulary words through interactive storytelling, I would like to offer fun props and repetitive rhymes (or music & movement songs) which can assist as reading cues. Most importantly, I will aim to encourage reflective conversations throughout storytelling sessions regarding the books read, and support students to share their opinions with one another.

The Principles and Myths of Vocabulary Instruction – Poster

Principles:

1)      Children Need Both Explicit and Implicit Instruction –

  • Vocabulary gains occurs highest when teachers provide the meaning of words (explicit instruction) to children, and then engaged them in using those word definitions in a meaningful context (implicit instruction).
2)      Be Intentional in Word Selection –

  • Tier 2 recommended because words are domain general and are likely to relate to more refined labels for concepts that may enhance children’s verbal functioning.
  • Introducing children to content-related vocabulary words helps them to build world knowledge and concepts essential for developing knowledge systematically from texts.
3)      Be Intentional in Word Selection –

  • Helping children to learn about words in clusters that represent knowledge networks has been shown to support children’s inferential reasoning and comprehension.
  • Clustering words within categories facilitated children’s comprehension and provided promising evidence of accelerating word learning.
  • Children learn best when words are presented in integrated contexts that make sense to them.
4)      Children Need Repeated Exposure to Gain Vocabulary –

  • Children are most likely to learn the words which they hear most over an extended period.
  • Repeated-reading strategies have been shown to be effective in helping children acquire new words.
5)      Ongoing Professional Development is Essential –

The following regime includes steps which teachers are recommended to consider for planning vocabulary instruction:

  • Identifying words that need to be taught;
  • Defining these words in a child-friendly way;
  • Contextualizing words into varied and meaningful formats;
  • Reviewing words to ensure sustainability over time; and
  • Monitoring children’s progress and reteaching if necessary.

Myths:

1)      Children Are Word Sponges –

  • Ample evidence suggests that children do not learn words through fast mapping (the notion that words can be learned based on a single exposure).
  • Children learn words by predicting relationships between objects and sounds and increase in accuracy overtime.
  • Word learning is incremental.
2)      There is a Vocabulary Explosion –

  • The vocabulary explosion is a byproduct of the variation in the time it takes to learn to use words.
  • Word learning is cumulative.
3)      Storybook Reading is Sufficient for Oral Vocabulary Development –

  • Research studies have reported only small to moderate effects of book reading on vocabulary development.
  • This shows that exposure to words through storybooks is not fully capable of narrowing the extensive gap for children who may be at risk for reading difficulties.
  • To improve children’s oral vocabulary development, teachers will need to enhance read-aloud experiences with more intentional strategies that require children to process words at deeper levels of understanding.
4)      We Do It All the Time –

  •  Although teachers try to provide word explanations several times per day during reading activities, the words are rarely repeated more than once.
  • Words selected for teachable moments tend to be different across classroom settings and occur less often in low-income school districts.
  • Teachers need to be proactive in selecting words that have greater application to academic texts with increasingly complex concepts.
5)      Just Follow the Vocabulary Scope and Sequence in a Core Reading Program –

  • On average the expectations in the programs greatly differed from one another, lacked organizing principles for selecting words to teach, and many of the vocabulary words selected for instruction were too easy to warrant school-based instruction.
  • Until materials are further developed, teachers should rely on research-based principles to ensure that all students receive quality vocabulary instruction.

 

References:

Neuman, S., & Wright, T. (2014). The Magic of Words: Teaching Vocabulary in the Early Childhood Classroom. American Educator,4-13. Retrieved from: https://www.aft.org/sites/default/files/periodicals/neuman.pdf.

 

Running Records – Write

The video playlist https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLcOe6hT98JCXstKXqPkAG2iQstDG1LIez features children demonstrating reading comprehension strategies used during Running Record exercises. As the children came across unknown material in their reading, they were able to decode words by sounding out the letters. A few of the children in the videos had used their fingers to follow along as they read and clearly demonstrated classifying individual letter sounds. Throughout the reading materials, the use of rhyming words and picture book illustrations provide cues for the children to also identify reading context. This was particularly shown in the video of a Pre-K student reading with her father. Associating words with other familiar words with similar spelling and/or meaning also took place as a strategy for the children to figure out how to read the words presented to them. For example, in the first video of the playlist, the child speaks the words “Grandmother, Grandma, and Grammie” before sounding out the ending of the word and selecting which term the word spells. Self-corrections occurred in several of the videos as children repeated individual words and sentences. Through this act of rereading, words which had previously been substitutions were revised as the children slowly segmented and blended the words. Altogether, the strategies which the children demonstrated in the videos aided their reading accuracy and will enable them to become proficient readers.

Phonemic Awareness Plan

Phonemic Awareness Plan

As a preschool teacher, I plan to provide engaging phonemic instruction by integrating phonological awareness into daily classroom activities and conversation.

  • Circle Time Activities:

There are countless group activity games which can promote phonological awareness skills during circle time lesson plans. Circle time is an opportune occurrence in the day for a teacher to demonstrate oral language and how to play with word sounds. ‘5 Quick and Easy Phonemic Awareness Activities’ shares a few examples of short phonemic games that can be arranged to fit into circle time lessons. These games include phonemic instruction such as rhyming and recognition of syllables in words.

(‘5 Quick and Easy Phonemic Awareness Activities’: https://www.earlychildhoodteacher.org/blog/5-quick-easy-and-fun-phonemic-awareness-activities/ )

  • Music and Movement:

Another way to include phonemic awareness lessons during circle time is through music and movement. This a great way for children to have fun exercising gross motor development while also distinguishing phoneme components as they sing along to songs. Jack Hartmann is one artist who writes phonological music and movement songs which can be taught in a preschool classroom. Each of his various songs individually focuses on separate phonological awareness instruction such as understanding digraphs, phoneme segmenting, and phoneme blending.

(Jack Hartmann’s Youtube Channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCVcQH8A634mauPrGbWs7QlQ )

  • Writing Center:

The writing center of a preschool is can be essential for practicing letter sounds of words and recognizing word similarities as well as differences. Worksheets can be included in a writing center to practice phonological awareness components such as phoneme categorization. Here is a worksheet which can be included in a writing center to identify separate letter sounds at the start of a word which end with ‘-at’, and then practice writing the full words to match the word pictures:

  • Math Center:

Like the writing center, phonological awareness instruction can be unified into the subject of math as well. Specifically, the practice of phoneme segmentation involves sounding out words and recognizing the individual sounds of each word. Worksheets such as these phoneme segmentation activities can be used for in a math center for counting the amount of individual sounds for each word picture:

  • Story-time & Reading Center:

Selecting storybooks which prompt children to participate in word sounds increases phonological awareness skills. Books which rhyme and give the children opportunity to repeat or speak along are ideal. Sharing wordless books is another terrific way to build early phonemic literacy skills and are a wonderful addition to a reading center of a preschool classroom. The following is a list of popular children’s storybooks which promote phonological awareness to be included in a classroom library: https://www.goodreads.com/shelf/show/phonemic-awareness